Alan Cruse’s book is published as part of a series of thematic glossaries devoted to different fields of This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. 96), one would also expect to find “lexicography” and “lexicon” . consist of more than one lexical constituent; second that it should be a single minimal semantic constituent’ (Cruse ). ‘The principle of idiom is that a. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics studies the meanings of words; the focus here The account given here largely follows that given in Cruse ().

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Jeff added it Feb 29, There is one more possible diagnostic criterion: In all these cases one can say that one term the more general one designates a more extensive area of quality space than the other. Types and dimensions of meaning 63 5.

Acts of reading, teaching, and selling and sneezing take place at particular times and particular places. There is no way that the meanings of an infinite number of sentences can be stored in a kind of sentence dictionary— there is not enough room in a finite brain for that.

Lexical Semantics

The essence of zeugma is the attempt to make a single expression do two semantic jobs at the same time. Since this book is not intended to propound a body of theory, but to acquaint non-specialists with the range of semantic phenomena in language, there is a bias towards descriptive coverage at the expense of theoretical rigour.

Would it not be the case that X would be Y’s legal allan unless and until it could be proved that she was his daughter? We shall not spend too much time on discussing what distinguishes a sentence from other grammatical units, such as a phrase, or a word, except to say that a sentence must contain at least one independent clause i.


At first sight this seems to be essentially the same as entailment. In fact, it means “nightingale”. Such a categorization effectively ‘describes’ the experiences and licenses further inferences about their properties, and so on.

Alan Cruse, A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics

The shirt was filthy, iv a. The History of Languages Tore Janson. On the other hand, the relation arises from a legal definition in one society. Mode refers to the difference between language characteristic of different channels, such as spoken, written, in the old days, telegraphic, and perhaps nowadays, e-mail. But this is not entailment, because it is not a consequence of the meaning relations between the two propositions, but of the fact that the second proposition cannot under any circumstances except bt altering the meanings of the components be false.

Lexical Semantics – D. A. Cruse, David Alan Cruse – Google Books

The simple view of this parameter is to make a sharp dichotomy between necessary and contingent logical relationships, and use entailment to determine whether or not a feature is necessary. To qualify as part of sentence meaning, a semantic property simply has to be a stable crusf property of some linguistic expression.

So, in the case of 22 Meaning in language The cat’s hungry, the word cat denotes the class of cats, but the cat refers to a particular cat. Love is a many-splendoured thing. The first type is self-explanatory; dialects of the second type vary according to the age of the speaker who now speaks of the wireless, even though modern radios have far fewer wires than their forebears?


Semsem marked it as to-read May 25, Even in Europe, conventional gestures can differ: Preface The aim of this book is not to present a unified theory of meaning in language I am not even sure that that would be a worthwhile projectbut to survey the full range of semantic phenomena, in all their richness and variety, in such a way that the reader will feel, on completing the book, that he or she has made face-to-face contact with the undeniably messy ‘real world’ of meaning.

Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics

I would hope it would be found useful, not only by students of linguistics, but also students of ancient and modern languages, translation, psychology, perhaps even literature. Ahmed Mohamed marked it as to-read May 01, Mention may involve any stretch of language: With these provisos, let us proceed to an examination of a number of dimensions along which descriptive meaning may vary. It derives mainly from two deeper presuppositions. Three main types of dialect can be distinguished: Similarly, slap is more specific than hit, scarlet is more specific than red, woman is more specific than person.

The whole utterance attributes a particular state to the cat in question.

He’s been dismissed, b. No trivia or quizzes yet. The existential quantifier says something like this: But if someone points to a creature and says Is that a dog? Differences of relative prominence can also be observed within a simple sentence.