CLINICAL ACTIONS: The NICHD conducted a workshop in January to review evidence, with special consideration to avoid unnecessary. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an. Historically, infection of the chorion, amnion, or both was termed ” chorioamnionitis.” Although this term remains in common use, the term.

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Intrapartum Management of Intraamniotic Infection – ACOG

It is nonetheless important to acknowledge that the overall absolute risk of cerebral palsy remains quite low approximately 2 per 1, live births Preterm premature rupture of membranes: Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity with Ureaplasma urealyticum is associated with a robust host response in fetal, amniotic, and maternal compartments.

Neither ACOG nor its officers, directors, members, employees, or agents will be liable for any loss, damage, or claim with respect to any liabilities, including direct, special, indirect, or consequential damages, incurred in connection with this publication or reliance on the information presented.

Chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants. These organisms are commonly part of choriooamnionitis vaginal flora especially in women with bacterial chorioamnioitis or the enteric flora E.

Supportive measures include the use of antipyretics acetaminophen. Other tests on amniotic fluid table 2 are limited in their overall predictive abilities for chorioamnionitis although the interleukin 6 and matrix metalloproteinase are more promising because of higher sensitivity and specificity [ 30 — 32 ]. Value of the maternal interleukin 6 level for determination of histologic chorioamnionitis in preterm delivery.

Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis: Consequently, depending on the criteria used and maternal characteristics including ethnicity and type of laborchorioamhionitis prevalence of chorioamnionitis based on placental pathology varies widely.

Antibiotics Evidence from randomized trials and observational studies demonstrate that immediate intrapartum use of broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly reduces maternal and fetal complications of chorioamnionitis [ 79 — 83 ]. It should be recognized that many of these proposed risk factors also are associated with longer duration of labor and membrane rupture, and may not be independently associated with intraamniotic infection.

Intraamniotic infection alone is rarely, if ever, an indication for cesarean delivery. Risk factors for intraamniotic infection: Purulence or foul odor of amniotic fluid are more axog to be present choriosmnionitis severe or prolonged infection and may be organism-specific, but in any case may or may not be appreciated by clinicians.


Women’s Health Care Physicians

Variations in practice may be warranted when, in the reasonable judgment of the treating clinician, such course of action is indicated by the condition of the patient, limitations of available resources, or advances in knowledge or technology.

Funisitis, also a histopathologic diagnosis, is the extension of infection or inflammation to the umbilical cord. Cerebral palsy and fetal inflammatory response syndrome: In clinical chorioamnioniits, confirmed intraamniotic infection among women in labor at term will most commonly be made after delivery, based on histopathologic study of the placenta. Confirmed intraamniotic infection is based on a positive amniotic fluid test result gram stain, glucose level, or culture results consistent with infection or placental pathology demonstrating histologic evidence of placental infection or inflammation.

Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for intra-amniotic infection. Definition Chorioamnionitis or intraamniotic infection is an acute inflammation of the membranes and chorion of the placenta, chorioamnoonitis due to ascending polymicrobial bacterial infection in the setting of membrane rupture.

Listeria monocytogenes infection of the fetus, which presents a pattern of both early onset and late onset neonatal sepsis similar to GBS, is presumed to be due to a hematogenous route rather than an ascending infection [ 45 ]. Postdelivery Recommendations Intrapartum antimicrobial agents administered for suspected or confirmed intraamniotic infection should not be continued automatically postpartum; rather, extension of antimicrobial therapy should be based on risk factors for postpartum endometritis 31— Clindamycin does provide coverage against mycoplasma hominis but none of the 3 standard antibiotics is effective against ureaplasma species which is the most common group associated with infection.

Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease—revised guidelines from CDC, After adjusting for potential confounding variables and depending on the specific confounders considered, some of the risk factors for chorioamnionitis identified in older studies no longer demonstrate an association in recent studies.

Therefore, in the absence of any clearly documented overriding risks, administration of intrapartum antibiotics is recommended whenever intraamniotic infection is suspected or confirmed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epub Oct These neonatal sepsis risk models do not affect maternal intrapartum management, but the use of maternal intrapartum data underscores the importance of communication with pediatric care providers as well as of appropriate maternal medical record documentation.

Intraamniotic infection can be associated with long-term complications for the infant, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and cerebral palsy 1314potentially due to the effect of inflammation alone.


It predominantly occurs by ascending bacterial invasion from the lower genital tract to the typically sterile amniotic chorioamnoinitis. Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: Effect of early-onset sepsis evaluations on in-hospital breastfeeding practices among asymptomatic term neonates. Antibiotics have also been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical or pathologic chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis and to prolong time-to-delivery among chorioamniobitis with preterm membrane rupture managed expectantly but not among those in active preterm labor with intact membranes in whom maternal infection was reduced [ 89 — 91 ].


The main preventative strategy is administration of antibiotics to women with preterm premature rupture of membranes which reduces the incidence of clinical chorioamnionitis, prolongs the time to delivery and improves neonatal outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics provide guidelines for assessing risk of neonatal infection 7, 35— The cervical mucous plug as well as the placenta and membranes provide a barrier to infection of the amniotic fluid and fetus.

Am J Perinatol ; Increased intrauterine frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of the membranes and subsequent cesarean delivery.

Diagnosis and Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

Fever in labour and neonatal encephalopathy: Bacterial vaginosis and intraamniotic infection. More recent data suggest that the relative risk for intraamniotic infection and neonatal infection may increase after 40 completed weeks of gestation 3— 5.

A recent meta-analysis of 15 studies found a chlrioamnionitis higher relative risk of cerebral palsy among primarily premature infants exposed to either histologic chorioamnionitis odds ratio [OR], 1. Intraamniotic chorioamnionitie often is polymicrobial in origin, commonly involves aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and frequently originates from the vaginal flora 2.

Mechanisms of lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The intensity of chorioammnionitis fetal inflammatory response in intraamniotic inflammation with and without microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. Therefore, the panel proposed to replace the term chorioamnionitis with a more general, descriptive term: Decreases in non-group B streptococcal neonatal infections also have been noted 9— Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature chorioamnioniyis of the membranes.

This remains an evolving area, and for the purposes of this document, which focuses on the management of suspected or confirmed infection, the use of the term intraamniotic infection is retained to identify this condition.